REGENERATIVE BRAKING POTENTIALLY LIFESAVING FOR YOUNG DRIVERS
Updated October 2020
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We use this information as a training guide in our everyday contact with students who are preparing for their test as we often use online tools when working face to face. We thank Waka Kotahi NZ Transport Agency for such a resource.
Waka Kotahi has endeavoured to ensure material in this document is technically accurate and reflects legal requirements. However, the
document does not override governing legislation. Waka Kotahi does not accept liability for any consequences arising from the use of this document. If the user of this document is unsure
whether the material is correct, they should refer directly to the relevant legislation and contact Waka Kotahi.
This booklet provides detailed information about the restricted licence test (RLT or the test). It will help professional driving instructors and coaches work with learner drivers as they prepare for the RLT, but it should not take the place of well-structured and comprehensive lesson plans, together with high levels of supervised driving experience in a broad range of driving situations.
In preparing for the test, Waka Kotahi recommends that all learner drivers and their coaches become familiar with this test guide, the road code and the DRIVE programme. These resources contain all the necessary information for learner drivers to develop the skills required to become safe drivers and subsequently be ready to sit the test.
DRIVE, a free website and learning tool created by Waka Kotahi and ACC is designed to help young people become confident, capable drivers. There is a section on the restricted licence test explaining how to prepare for the test, and how the test is marked giving examples of critical and immediate fail errors and detailing what will happen during the test.
There are also some videos showing how to conduct a number of driving manoeuvres for beginner, intermediate and experienced drivers: www.drive.govt.nz
The restricted licence test is designed to assess whether the skills of the learner driver are at a level where they can drive safely without a supervisor in the vehicle (under certain conditions). The restricted licence conditions may be viewed on Factsheet 45 http://www.nzta.govt.nz/assets/resources/factsheets/45/docs/45-learning-to-drive.pdf
The test assesses a learner driver’s ability to competently, safely and legally drive a motor vehicle on a road in various road and traffic conditions. This booklet provides detailed information on how the test will be conducted, what driving errors could result in a critical error or immediate failure error being recorded and the road layouts you are likely to encounter on the test.
The test will take around 60 minutes. This time allows for vehicle checks before the test, the driving test itself and time for the testing officer to provide feedback on the applicant’s performance after the test.
A learner driver is more likely to pass the test if they have had at least 120 hours supervised driving experience covering the road layouts shown for each of the assessable tasks in the booklet.
The test is undertaken on test routes that have been developed according to a set of standard requirements. This ensures that all test routes used are of a nationally consistent standard.
A testing officer undertakes many tasks during the test including directing the applicant around the route, observing and marking driving behaviour and keeping an eye on safety. Because of this, it is unlikely that the testing officer will have time to engage in conversation with the applicant. Ensure the applicant is aware of this, is prepared for it and is not offended by it.
The test takes a total of one hour to administer. This time allows for:
** Meeting the applicant
** Conducting the pre-drive vehicle safety check
** Conducting a 45 minute practical drive
** Adding up the test score sheet at the end of each stage providing feedback to the applicant on their performance at the end of the test
The test comprises two stages.
Stage 1 of the test takes 10 minutes and is a set of relatively simple driving tasks conducted in a less complex traffic environment designed to assess the applicant’s driving ability. This stage is conducted in speed zones of up to 60km/h and determines whether the applicant is a sufficiently skilled and safe driver to proceed to the more challenging driving tasks and environments of Stage 2 of the
An applicant who does not achieve a satisfactory score in Stage 1 is not permitted to undertake Stage 2 of the test. In this way, applicants who are not ready to tackle the more challenging tasks in Stage 2 are screened out before they can pose a danger to themselves and other road users.
Stage 2 of the test takes 35 minutes and is designed to assess the applicant’s ability to perform more challenging tasks in moderately challenging environments within speed zones of 60km/h and 110km/h.
To pass the RLT, an applicant must demonstrate safe decision-making, observance of road rules and satisfactory car-handling skills throughout the whole test.
Stages 1 and 2 of the RLT must be undertaken during a single test booking. They cannot be split into separate appointments.
There are two types of driving tasks in the RLT:
Assessable tasks include left and right turns, lane changes (or turning right across traffic where lane changes are not available), merging with other traffic, straight drives, straight or right at a roundabout and a reverse parallel park. The applicant’s performance on each assessable task is assessed according to predetermined task assessment
Linking manoeuvres join up the assessable tasks into a complete driving route that begins and ends at the car park of the testing office or other suitable location for the start. Linking manoeuvres include similar driving manoeuvres to the assessable tasks but do not have associated task assessment items assigned to them.
There are seven assessable tasks in Stage 1 and 18 assessable tasks in Stage 2. The Assessable Tasks used in the RLT are described in section 4.
During the test the applicant will be assessed against three different assessment criteria:
Task assessment items which assess one aspect of driving performance during the execution of each assessable task.
The task assessment items are described in section 5.
Critical errors which are recorded at any time they occur during the RLT, whether during an assessable task or
The critical error types are described in section 6.
Immediate failure errors are also recorded at any time they occur and result in the immediate failure of the test.
The immediate failure error types are described in section 7.
Note that this guide does not cover the number of driving faults that are permitted during the test as the pre-test preparation should not be focused around how many driving faults may be made during the test, but rather whether the novice driver has the necessary skills to be a safe driver (ie, they can consistently perform the driving tasks to the required standard).
If the novice driver is making any critical errors or immediate failure errors in training then they are clearly not yet ready to attempt this test.
Before beginning the RLT, the testing officer will:
** Check the candidate’s identity
** Conduct a pre-drive safety check
** Conduct an in-vehicle safety
Prior to commencing the test the testing officer will:
** Sight the applicant’s learner licence to ensure it is current and to confirm their identity
** check the vehicle to be used in the test for:
** A current warrant of fitness or certificate of fitness label
** Two learner licence plates (L plates) displayed correctly
** A current vehicle licence (registration) label
** A current road user charges (RUC) label if it is a diesel vehicle
** Sufficient fuel to complete the
** If any of these requirements cannot be met, the test will be cancelled.
The vehicle to be used for the test must comply with the legal provisions that govern its use on the road. While testing officers do not examine the vehicle in detail, they will check the items listed below to ensure that all safety items are in a roadworthy state. Applicants will be requested to assist with the pre-drive check.
If the vehicle is not roadworthy, the test will not proceed.
Vehicle posture (car only)
The vehicle is sitting square to the road, indicating all tyres have equal or close to equal pressure.
Tyres and wheels
The vehicle has no obvious damage that could be considered dangerous.
Tyres should have the required tread depth and no uneven wear, and wheels should appear undamaged (visual inspection only). Winter and summer tyres are not mixed.
The test cannot proceed if a space-saver tyre is fitted to the vehicle.
Indicators and brake lights
Indicators and brake lights (to meet equipment requirements) operate correctly and all lenses are intact.
Lenses must be intact and high and low beams operate if the test is to take place in low light conditions.
Wipers must operate satisfactorily if the test is to take place in rain or fog.
The horn must operate.
Seatbelts must be fitted and available to all occupants in the vehicle during the test.
Mirrors are checked for position and seatbelts are in safe and serviceable condition.
The testing officer will check the applicant is able to identify where the following controls are located in the vehicle:
** windscreen demister
** rear window demister (where fitted).
If the applicant is unable to identify the items above they will be pointed out to them and the applicant will still be able to undertake the test. However if it becomes necessary to use one of the controls during the test and the applicant requires assistance to operate the control, an immediate failure error would result.
The pre-drive safety check and in-vehicle check do not contribute to the applicant’s test score.
Stage 1 Assessable tasks
Table 1 shows the typical assessable tasks for stage 1. Some tasks may be assessed more than once and may be assessed at intersection types that differ from those shown here. It is also possible that some tasks may be replaced by others if they cannot be undertaken on a particular test route. For example, all routes are designed to include a reverse parallel park, but this task may be replaced by a three-point turn if a safe location for a reverse park is not available when required in the test route.
Table 1 Typical assessable tasks for stage 1
Figure 1 Below – Right turn giving way to intersecting traffic (one lane each way), maybe at a ‘T’ or cross-intersection
Figure 2 Above – Left turn giving way to intersecting traffic (one lane each way), maybe at a ‘T’ or cross-intersection
Figure 3 Lane change right
Figure 4 Below – Lane change left
Figure 5 Below – Reverse parallel park
Figure 6 Three-point turn (substitute task)
The purpose of stage 2 is to assess the applicant’s driving ability in busier day-to-day traffic environments. Stage 2 of the test route, therefore, uses roads with medium to heavy traffic flows.
Typical stage 2 assessable tasks and their location requirements are shown in table 2. Some tasks may be assessed more than once and maybe assessed at intersection types that differ from those shown here. It is also possible that some tasks may be replaced by others if they cannot be undertaken on a particular test route.
Table 2 Typical assessable tasks for stage 2
Figure 7 Right turn giving way to intersecting traffic (one lane each way), maybe at a ‘T’ or cross-intersection
Figure 8 Right turn giving way to intersecting traffic (two lanes each way), may be at a ‘T’ or cross-intersection
Figure 9 Right turn giving way to one lane of oncoming traffic, may be at a ‘T’ or cross- intersection
Figure 10 Right turn giving way to two lanes of oncoming traffic, may be at a ‘T’ or cross- intersection
Figure 11 Left turn giving way to intersecting traffic (one lane each way), may be at a ‘T’ or cross-intersection
Figure 12 Left turn giving way to intersecting traffic (two lanes each way), may be at a ‘T’ or cross-intersection
Figure 13 above – Left turn with priority, may be at a ‘T’ or cross-intersection
Figure 14 Below – Lane change right
Figure 15 Below – Lane change left
Figure 16 Above – Lane change right in preparation for a turn
Figure 17 Lane change left in preparation for a turn
Figure 18 Merge lanes
Figure 19 Straight drive (medium speed)
Figure 20 Straight drive (arterial road)
Figure 21 Right turn at a roundabout
Figure 22 Straight through at a roundabout
Each task assessment item assesses one aspect of driving performance during the execution of an assessable task at a specific location on the test route. For example, observation might be assessed when turning right from Smith Street into Jones Road.
Task assessment items are not assessed while driving between assessable tasks. They contribute to the applicant’s point score for stage 1 or for the entire test.
There are 10 task assessment items that may be assigned to an assessable task, as follows:
Observation Lateral position
Signalling Parking observation
Gap selection Parking movement
Speed choice Leaving park
Following distance Turning movement
An explanation of each task assessment item is shown below.
Safe, effective driving is achieved when drivers observe and assess the ever-changing driving environment in front of, to both sides and to the rear of their vehicles. Throughout the test the applicant must demonstrate thorough observation skills. This includes using mirrors and performing head checks (as appropriate).
Maintains a continuous lookout ahead of the vehicle, except when making brief checks of the mirrors and other directions.
When driving straight, checks the mirrors often enough to maintain awareness of surrounding The required frequency varies with traffic conditions.
When required to give way to other traffic (such as when facing a give way sign, turning across oncoming traffic, approaching a pedestrian crossing or entering a roundabout), looks in the direction(s) from which conflicting traffic (or pedestrians) might approach before
Checks the relevant mirror/s immediately before
Prior to turning or diverging (including when entering or crossing a special vehicle lane in preparation for a left turn):
checks the relevant mirror/s immediately before signalling
performs a head check immediately before moving laterally (if appropriate).
When turning, looks in the planned direction of travel (ie in the direction of the turn) before making the turn.
When making a three-point turn, looks in both directions along the road and does head check immediately before moving across the road (before and after reversing) and immediately before reversing away from the
When reversing as part of a three-point turn, looks in the direction of travel while
Prior to driving over a railway crossing, looks in both directions for approaching rail
Communication with other road users is an important aspect of safely sharing the road. A vehicle’s indicators provide the main means of communicating a driver’s intention to change direction. The applicant needs to demonstrate their ability to apply the appropriate signals throughout the test, irrespective of traffic conditions.
Activates the turn indicator for the appropriate direction (left or right) for at least three seconds (even if no other traffic is present) before:
pulling out from the kerb
pulling into the kerb
diverging left or right by at least the width of the car (other than pulling out from the kerb)
diverging by less than the width of the car in circumstances where it is necessary to warn other road users of the intended movement (eg to indicate that the applicant intends to overtake a parked car before allowing an oncoming vehicle to pass)
stopping next to a parked vehicle to commence a reverse parallel
activates the turn indicator in the appropriate direction (left or right) for at least three seconds prior to entering the roundabout
activates the left turn indicator before leaving the
When travelling straight ahead at a roundabout:
does not signal prior to entering the roundabout
activates the left turn indicator before leaving the
When turning left or right, does not activate the turn indicator so early that it might mislead other road users about which street the applicant intends to turn
Maintains the turn signal until the turn or diverge has been
Cancels the turn indicator if necessary when the turn or diverge has been
Figure 23 Signals when changing lanes
Figure 24 If turning left, signals left on approach and leaves on until roundabout has been exited
Figure 25 If moving straight ahead signals left to exit (if practicable to do so) when passing the entry point immediately before the required exit
Figure 26 If turning right, signals right on approach and in the roundabout, then signals left to exit (if practicable to do so) when passing the entry point immediately before the required exit
Correct gap selection should allow any manoeuvre to be completed safely without causing other road users to adjust their speed or direction.
Drivers who reject safe gaps increase congestion and delays, leading to frustration for other road users. The applicant must demonstrate safe and appropriate gap selection consistently throughout the test.
The applicant must observe the speed limit at all times. This includes any temporary speed limits. The applicant also needs to adjust the vehicle’s speed to suit the prevailing driving conditions (road, weather, light, driver, vehicle or traffic conditions).
Does not exceed the speed limit by 5km/h or more at any
When driving straight, drives at or close to the speed limit when conditions are suitable, but at a lower speed if road, weather or traffic conditions (eg driving on a wet or unsealed road, or in congested or slow traffic) make it unsafe to travel at the speed
When merging, adjusts speed if necessary to choose a safe gap in the
The applicant needs to maintain a safe following distance between the car being driven and the vehicle in front by applying the appropriate 2-second or 4-second rules throughout the test.
When driving straight in good conditions, maintains a following distance of at least 2 seconds behind the vehicle
When driving straight in poor conditions (eg on a wet or unsealed road), maintains a following distance of at least 4 seconds behind the vehicle
After changing lanes, resumes the applicable following distance (2 or 4 seconds, depending on conditions) behind the vehicle in front as soon as
The applicant must position the vehicle in a safe and legal position throughout the test.
On roads with more than one lane marked for the applicant’s direction of travel, selects an appropriate lane for the driving task.
When turning left or right from a road with marked lanes, commences the turn from a lane from which the relevant turn (left or right) is permitted.
When turning into a multi-lane road, turns into the nearest lane, and does not mislead other drivers by turning towards one lane and then changing direction to finish in a different
When travelling on a road with a flush median, uses the flush median to:
wait before turning right (see Figure 27)
wait to move into a gap in the traffic flow after you have turned right (see Figure 28).
When travelling straight through an intersection, does not select a lane marked for turning traffic only.
Does not drive in a special vehicle only lane (eg bus or bicycle), except when:
entering or leaving the road
pulling over to or out from the kerb
passing a right-turning vehicle
in which cases the applicant is permitted to drive in a special vehicle lane for up to 50 metres.
NOTE: This exception does not apply in the case of a cycle lane where the applicant has a separate marked lane for their intended direction of travel which is clearly differentiated from the cycle lane.
Where there is more than one lane available, selects the appropriate lane to travel in (eg does not travel in the left lane if it is intermittently blocked by parked vehicles and another lane is available).
When turning right:
keeps left of the centre line (if any) or centre of the road (if no centre line) when entering the intersection and when leaving the intersection (see Figure 29, Figure 30 and Figure 31)
if turning from a road without marked lanes, enters the intersection as near as practicable to the centre line (if any) or the centre of the road
if turning right at an intersection other than a T-intersection or a roundabout, passes to the right of the centre of the intersection, unless road markings impose a different requirement.
When turning left:
does not cross the centre line of either the road the applicant is turning from or the road the applicant is turning into
if turning left from a road without marked lanes, commences the turn from as near as practicable to the left side of the road.
Positions the vehicle wholly within the lane (except when changing lanes) and does not wander from side to side within the
When driving along a road with only one lane or line of traffic for the applicant’s direction of travel, positions the vehicle as near as practicable to the left side of the road. Note that it is not considered practicable to drive close to the left side of the road if this would require the applicant to diverge frequently around parked
Maintains a lateral clearance of at least 1.2 metres from parked vehicles, whenever
Maintains a lateral distance of at least 5 metres from cyclists, whenever possible.
Maintains a safe lateral clearance from vehicles travelling in other lanes.
Figure 27 Using a flush median to wait before turning right
Figure 28 Using a flush median to wait to move into a gap in the traffic flow after you have turned right
Figure 29 Correct lateral position on a right turn, keeping left of centre when entering and leaving the intersection
Figure 30 Correct lateral position for a right turn into a multi-lane road
Figure 31 Correct lateral position for a left turn from a road with no marked lanes, entering the intersection as near as practicable to the left side of the road
Figure 32 Correct lateral position when cars are parked at the left side of the road (note: ‘P’ indicates a parked vehicle)
Reversing is a necessary driving skill that will be tested during the test. The preferred option is a reverse parallel park but applicants may be asked to conduct a three-point turn in areas where no suitable spaces are available to conduct a reverse parallel park.
Checks the relevant mirror/s and does head check immediately before
When reverse parking, maintains observation to the rear.
The applicant must be able to satisfactorily manoeuvre the vehicle when completing a reverse parallel park.
Completes the reverse parallel park in no more than four vehicle movements (as shown in figure 34) and in no more than two minutes (unless traffic conditions make this unreasonable).
Does not reverse more than 7 metres behind the rear of the vehicle in front (measured from the rear of the parked vehicle to the front of the applicant’s car).
Finishes with the vehicle parallel to and within 300mm of the kerb.
Finishes 1–2 metres from the vehicle in front.
Does not contact the kerb heavily enough to cause discomfort to vehicle occupants.
Does not allow any wheel to mount the kerb while parking.
Figure 33 Indicating when stopping next to a parked vehicle for a reverse parallel park movement. The applicant is required to maintain a turn signal at positions A and B
Figure 34 Reverse parallel park manoeuvre (no more than 4 movements).
Movements 3 and 4 (not shown) can be used to correct the vehicle’s position
Marking of the reverse parallel park manoeuvre will include the applicant exiting the park and rejoining the traffic flow.
Checks in the relevant mirror/s, signals and makes a head check immediately before pulling out from the kerb.
Pulls out from the kerb in either one or two movements (ie one reverse movement if required, and one forward movement).
Figure 35 Leaving parking, using one reverse movement and one forward movement (note: ‘P’ indicates a parked vehicle). The applicant is required to signal before pulling out from the kerb.
On those occasions where the testing officer may be unable to find a suitable location for the reverse parallel park the applicant will be requested to conduct a three-point turn.
When performing a three-point turn, the applicant must not make use of driveways on either side of the road nor may they complete the manoeuvre as a U-turn.
Positions the car parallel to and within 300mm of the left kerb.
Moves across the road to the right kerb without contacting any kerb hard enough to cause discomfort to vehicle occupants and without allowing any wheel to mount a kerb.
Does not use a driveway and does not allow the vehicle to enter private
Reverses away from the kerb without contacting any kerb hard enough to cause discomfort to vehicle occupants and without allowing any wheel to mount a kerb
Returns to the correct side of the road when driving off as the manoeuvre is compleed
Completes the manoeuvre in no more than two minutes and without moving across the road to the right more than once.
Figure 36 Three-point turn movements, including pulling over to the left kerb. The applicant is required to signal before pulling over to the kerb and before moving across to the right.
A critical error is a serious driving error that does not meet the threshold for an immediate failure error. Critical errors are recorded at any time they occur during either stage of the test, whether or not the applicant was undertaking an assessable task at the time of the error. Most illegal driving actions are classified as critical errors (except errors that endanger any road user, which are classified as immediate failure errors). Critical errors are more important than the errors assessed by task assessment items, so critical errors have a greater influence on the outcome of the test.
Critical errors include:
Too slow Mounting a kerb
Too fast Stalling the vehicle
Failing to look Incomplete stop at a Stop sign
Failing to signal Other illegal action Blocking a pedestrian crossing
Critical errors are described in more detail below.
Drivers who travel much more slowly than necessary, or stop unnecessarily, increase traffic congestion and cause additional frustration to other drivers, potentially leading to unsafe behaviour by other drivers.
The applicant travels at 10km/h or more below the speed limit and following traffic is inconvenienced, unless road or traffic conditions (eg travelling on a wet or unsealed road or in congested or slow traffic) make it unsafe to travel closer to the speed limit
The applicant remains stationary for no good reason for 5 seconds or more when there was ample opportunity to proceed:
At traffic signals, the applicable signal has turned green, or at an intersection, all vehicles to which the applicant is required to give way have cleared the intersection, or vehicles queued in front of the applicant have moved off.
Note: when turning right onto a major road (and there is a flush median available), there is an expectation that the applicant will utilise the flush median where it is appropriate and practicable to do so (refer figure 28)
When turning right at traffic signals (and there are no other vehicles already waiting in the intersection to turn), the applicant does not move forward to wait in the intersection for a safe gap in the oncoming traffic
Any situation where the applicant has priority over other road users and is able to proceed but fails to do so
The applicant stops unnecessarily, eg before driving through a pedestrian crossing or school crossing when no pedestrians are on or approaching the
The applicant must not exceed the speed limit at any time during the test.
The applicant exceeds the speed limit by 5km/h or more (but less than 10km/h) for less than 5 seconds.
Applicants will be required to demonstrate thorough observation techniques throughout the test.
When pulling out from the kerb, the applicant does not check the relevant mirror/s AND does not do a head check before moving off
When diverging left or right by at least the width of the car, the applicant does not check the relevant mirror/s AND does not do a head check before diverging
When changing lanes or partially changing lanes, the applicant does not check the relevant mirror/s AND does not do a head check before crossing the lane boundary
When required to give way to conflicting traffic, the applicant fails to look for conflicting traffic before proceeding
Prior to driving over a railway crossing, the applicant fails to look in both directions for approaching rail
Assessed as an immediate failure error in some cases
When turning or diverging (including changing lanes or pulling out from the kerb), if the applicant fails to give way and causes another road user to take evasive action, an immediate failure error (failing to give way) is recorded.
Failing to signal
The applicant needs to demonstrate their ability to apply the appropriate signals throughout the test, irrespective of traffic conditions.
When pulling out from a parked or stationary position the applicant fails to signal before moving off
When stopping next to a parked car to commence the reverse parallel park, the applicant fails to signal
When stopping at the kerb or the side of the road, the applicant fails to signal before diverging or stopping
When diverging left or right by at least the width of the car, the applicant fails to signal before diverging
When changing lanes or partially changing lanes, the applicant fails to signal before crossing the lane boundary
When turning at an intersection, the applicant fails to give a turn signal
When negotiating a roundabout, fails to give appropriate signal(s).
A critical error is not incurred if the applicant signals when required but does not do so correctly (eg the signal is not activated soon enough or is allowed to cancel too soon). However, this will be counted as a ‘no’ for the relevant task assessment item.
Blocking a pedestrian crossing
A driver shall not stop a vehicle in a position that blocks a pedestrian crossing. However, in some cases (eg in some left-turn slip lanes) it may be necessary for the first queued vehicle to stop on the crossing if an adequate view of approaching traffic cannot be obtained by stopping before the crossing.
The applicant stops the vehicle on or partly on a pedestrian crossing or an area controlled by pedestrian traffic signals (but no pedestrians are affected).
The applicant is not penalised for stopping the vehicle on a pedestrian crossing if it is necessary to do so to view approaching traffic before completing a turn at an intersection (see Figure 37):
If more than one vehicle is queuing to make the turn, this exception applies only to the first vehicle in the queue (see Figure 38)
Before stopping on the pedestrian crossing, the applicant must take all reasonable care to ensure that no pedestrian has to take evasive action.
When blocking a pedestrian crossing is an immediate failure error.
If the applicant stops the vehicle at a position that intrudes onto or blocks a pedestrian crossing and a pedestrian takes evasive action, the exception described above does not apply. An immediate failure error (stopping at dangerous position) is incurred.
Figure 37 Stopping before the crossing may not provide an adequate view of traffic approaching from the right
Figure 38 The second queued vehicle should not encroach on the pedestrian crossing until the first vehicle has departed
Causing the vehicle to mount the kerb during the test indicates the applicant does not have sufficient skills to safely control the vehicle.
While entering or leaving a parking space or performing a three-point turn, the applicant allows one wheel of the vehicle to mount the kerb and no other road user is required to take evasive action and there is no danger to
If, while entering or leaving a parking space or performing a three-point turn, one or more tyres contacts the kerb but not heavily enough to cause discomfort to vehicle occupants and without mounting the kerb, no penalty is recorded.
An immediate failure error (collision) is incurred when mounting the kerb if:
more than one wheel mounts the kerb, or
a road user takes evasive action, or
there is danger to property
Stalling the vehicle can lead to potentially dangerous conflicts with other traffic.
If the applicant requires physical or verbal assistance to start or re-start the vehicle after a stall (or at any other time in the test), an immediate failure error (intervention) is incurred.
Applicants are required to come to a complete stop at stop signs.
when approaching a stop sign, the applicant slows and pauses, but fails to bring the vehicle to a complete stop (with the wheels motionless) in a suitable position to see if the way is
An immediate failure error is incurred if:
the applicant drives past a stop sign without clearly demonstrating an intention to stop, regardless of whether there is any conflict with other traffic
the incomplete stop occurs at a railway level crossing controlled by a stop sign
the applicant does not stop at a red or yellow traffic signal (when required to do so)
when stopping at a stop or give way sign, stops in a position that creates a conflict with an approaching vehicle on the intersecting
Applicants are required to comply with legal requirements at all times during the test.
the applicant performs an illegal driving action not specified and recorded under any other critical error, for example:
following distance is between 1 and 2 seconds
the applicant drives over part of the central island of a roundabout designed to be driven over by heavy vehicles
the applicant fails to give way to a pedestrian waiting to cross at a pedestrian crossing (but not on the crossing).
If the applicant gives a turn/diverge signal that starts too late or finishes too early, a critical error (other illegal action) should not be recorded. This should be recorded for Signalling if the task is assessable. However, if a required turn/diverge signal is omitted altogether, a critical error (fail to signal) should be recorded.
If the applicant breaches the lateral position requirements stated in section 5, a critical error (other illegal action) should only be recorded if the applicant:
makes an incorrect lane change and no other road user is affected, or
turns from a lane marked for straight-through traffic only, or
turns into a multi-laned road and turns into the incorrect lane, and no other road user is affected; or
drives straight through an intersection from a lane marked for turning traffic only, or
unnecessarily drives in (or partly in) a special vehicle lane, or
drives on (or partly on) the wrong side of the road
does not drive wholly within their lane unless avoiding an
For all other breaches of the lateral position requirements, a critical error (other illegal action) should not be recorded.
If, when directed to pull over to the kerb at the end of stage 1, the applicant stops the car very close to (but not blocking) a driveway, a critical error (other illegal action) should not be recorded.
Figure 39 Illegal overtaking on the left on roads with only one marked lane for the applicant’s direction of travel
Immediate failure errors are recorded at any time they occur during either stage of the test regardless of whether or not the applicant was undertaking an assessable task at the time of the error. All driving actions resulting in immediate danger to any road user or to property are classified as immediate failure errors and would usually be when the applicant is operating the vehicle carelessly, dangerously or recklessly. Immediate failure errors are the most dangerous errors of all and result in immediate failure of the test.
Immediate failure errors include:
Immediate failure errors are described in more detail below.
The applicant must be able to demonstrate they can independently drive safely, ie without verbal or physical assistance.
the testing officer or support person in the vehicle provides any verbal or physical assistance to the applicant while the test is in progress
the testing officer or support person in the vehicle intervenes verbally or physically while the test is in progress to prevent a collision or prevent the development of an unsafe
The applicant is not penalised if the testing officer repeats or clarifies an instruction while the assessment is in progress.
Figure 40 If an applicant commences a manoeuvre that will cause immediate danger, the testing officer should intervene (note: ‘P’ indicates a parked vehicle)
Failure to carry out instruction during the test indicates the applicant does not have the confidence or ability to correctly control the vehicle or make safe decisions so cannot yet be relied on to drive independently and safely.
the applicant is unable, because of lack of driving ability, to carry out the testing officer’s instruction
the applicant disobeys a direction given by an enforcement
Causing the vehicle to collide with the kerb, object or another road user during the test indicates the applicant does not have the ability to control the vehicle or negotiate the correct choice so cannot yet be relied on to drive independently and safely.
while entering or leaving a parking space or performing a three-point turn, one wheel mounts the kerb, causing another road user to take evasive action or causing danger to property
while entering or leaving a parking space or performing a three-point turn, two or more wheels mount the kerb
any wheel mounts the kerb at any time other than while entering or leaving a parking space or performing a three-point turn
the vehicle contacts the kerb at any time (other than when parking or performing a three-point turn)
the vehicle touches any stationary object (such as a sign, fence, pole, tree or rubbish bin)
the vehicle touches any other vehicle or road user (pedestrian or cyclist).
The applicant is not penalised if their vehicle collides with another vehicle or road user and the collision is the fault of the other road user and the applicant did not contribute to the collision
An immediate failure error (collision) is not recorded if the applicant drives over part of the central island of a roundabout and that part of the central island is designed to be driven on by heavy vehicles.
In this case, a critical error (lateral position) is recorded.
Figure 41 Immediate failure error (collision) – mounting the kerb of a roundabout or striking the kerb
Figure 42 Critical error (other illegal action) – driving on a part of the roundabout intended for use only by heavy vehicles
Figure 43 Immediate failure error (collision) – mounting or driving over a part of the roundabout not intended to be driven on by any vehicles
The development of beliefs, values, and attitudes is influenced by ethnicity, family, and friends (peers).
Our beliefs develop as a result of exposure to information and practices that we accept as correct. This can lead to positive or negative reinforcement of lessons already assimilated.
Values relate to the importance we place on behaviors like personal responsibility and the rights of other people. Our value system develops at an early stage in life and normally reflects the social environment in which we are raised.
Attitudes come from our beliefs and values and we express them on the road. Our attitudes can change and develop as a result of our experiences and the experience of others or if we are influenced by others.
A positive effect on driver behaviour is the value you place on the safety of your passengers and other road users.
Another positive effect on driver behavior is your belief that road rules are in place for a good reason so you comply with them and do not allow yourself to be pushed into speeding by tailgaters but rather you pull over to let them pass.
Having a relaxed attitude is also positive driver behaviour.
A negative effect is relying on your inflated belief in your skills together with vehicle technology means following distances and speed limits don’t apply to you.
Believing yourself to be a good driver because you can control the vehicle and react quickly, leads to the misconception that hazard detection and planning the approach to hazards is not necessary.
Believing yourself to be a good driver because you haven’t had a crash but follow too close is more about luck than good management. For example, “my vehicle has ABS, EBS, and stability control and she’ll stop on a dime. So that means I can drive faster in any conditions.
They are codes of expected behaviour within social groups, work environments, and society in general. “We have the right to drive” leads to a resistance to the development of advanced skills, tougher driving tests or the raising of the driving age.